Moral Distress, Sign of Ethical Issues in the Practice of Oncology Nursing: Literature Review

Ivonne Vargas Celis, Camila Andrea Concha Méndez

Resumen


Angustia moral, señal de problemas éticos en la práctica de enfermería oncológica: revisión de literatura

Angústia moral, sinal de problemas éticos na prática de enfermagem oncológica: revisão de literatura

Objetivo: describir los factores que influyen en el surgimiento de la angustia moral en enfermeras oncológicas. Metodología: revisión integradora de la literatura cuya búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Web of Science, CINAHL (EBSCO), Scielo, Proquest, Pubmed y PsycInfo, a partir del uso de las palabras clave moral distress y oncology nursing y sus símiles en español, sin restricción por años de publicación hasta 2017. Resultados: se clasificaron en tres grupos de factores, cada uno con subgrupos: 1) factores organizacionales: clima ético, cultura evasiva y los recursos para la ética que entrega la organización; 2) situaciones clínicas complejas: el manejo del dolor, la entrega de información, el tratamiento fútil, y la asistencia al paciente y su familia durante el proceso de muerte; 3) relaciones interpersonales: una comunicación deficiente, las relaciones de poder, la confianza en la competencia del equipo. Conclusión: los tres factores son desencadenantes de angustia moral en las enfermeras oncológicas. Cuando existen problemas éticos, y las enfermeras no participan del proceso de deliberación, estos pueden quedar ocultos y, así, disminuir la sensibilidad moral de los profesionales, así como la posibilidad de actuar como agentes morales. Es necesario explorar la relación entre la angustia moral y las implicancias en el cuidado del paciente.

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Vargas I, Concha CA. Moral Distress, Sign of Ethical Issues in the Practice of Oncology Nursing: Literature Review. Aquichan 2019; 19(1): e1913. DOI: 10.5294/aqui.2019.19.1.3

Received: 17/09/2018

Approved: 12/12/2018


Palabras clave


Angustia moral; enfermería oncológica; clima ético; problemas éticos; relaciones interprofesionales

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5294/aqui.2019.19.1.3

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