Social Factors Contributing to the Development of Allostatic Load in Older Adults: A Correlational- Predictive Study

Alejandro Morales Jinez, Esther Gallegos Cabriales, Karen D'Alonzo, Alicia Ugarte Esquivel, Francisco Javier López Rincón, Bertha Cecilia Salazar González

Resumen


Factores sociales que contribuyen al desarrollo de la carga alostática en adultos mayores: un estudio correlacional-predictivo

Fatores sociais que contribuem para o desenvolvimento da carga alostática em idosos: um estudo preditivo correlacional

Objetivo: determinar si factores sociales como las condiciones de vivienda, la satisfacción con la casa, las características del vecindario, el apoyo social, las relaciones familiares y la asistencia a la iglesia contribuyen al desarrollo de la carga alostática en los adultos mayores. Materiales y método: se realizó un estudio correlacional y predictivo de corte transversal. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron una hoja de datos sociodemográficos, el instrumento de relaciones familiares percibidas, el cuestionario de Apoyo Social y la Escala de Movilidad Activa en el Entorno Comunitario, versión corta. Los biomarcadores de carga alostática utilizados fueron: presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, relación cintura-cadera, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidad, hemoglobina glicosilada, fibrinógeno y proteína C-Reactiva. La muestra se calculó para para el contraste de la hipótesis de no relación (R2 = 0), en un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple con 11 covariables, con un nivel de significancia del .05 y una potencia del 90 % (.90), cuando el coeficinete de determinación poblacional (R2) es .15, tamaño de muestra que resultó en 131 adultos mayores. El análisis estadístico incluyó medidas descriptivas y modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: los participantes tenían un riesgo medio o alto de carga alostática. El análisis del modelo de regresión lineal multivariante mostró que las mejores condiciones de vivienda, la satisfacción con la propia casa, la presencia de calles sin salida y la asistencia a la iglesia reducen la carga alostática y que el tráfico peligroso aumenta la carga alostática. Conclusiones: existen varios factores sociales que contribuyen al desarrollo de la carga alostática en adultos mayores. Es necesario crear estrategias de cuidado de enfermería hacia el entorno social para disminuir la carga alostática en el adulto mayor.

Palabras clave


Allostasis; envejecimiento; relaciones familiares; características de la residencia; apoyo social

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